[The Figwort Family East of the Cascade Mts. of Oregon and Washington]

Monkeyflowers Found East of the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington

The Genera Diplacus and Erythranthe

Flowers of Mimulus nanus

Dwarf Purple Monkey Flower: Diplacus nanus

The genus name Mimulus is a Latin term (mimus) meaning buffoon or actor in a farce or mime. The common name "monkey flower" refers to the resemblance of the flowers to small, grinning, ape-like faces. Many of the members of this genus are suitable for growth in woodland gardens which are seasonally moist. Mimulus guttatus is probably the easiest to establish, but needs moist "feet" in spring and through much of the summer. Diplacus nanus and Diplacus cusickii both would be attractive in the rock garden.

Key for Differentiating Several Diplacus Species of Central Oregon

Cascade Monkeyflower: Diplacus cascadensis (Synonyms: Mimulus nanus, Mimulus nanus ssp. cascadensis) -

Bank Monkeyflower, Bank Monkey Flower: Diplacus clivicola (Synonym: Mimulus clivicola) - Annual from 5-20 cm tall. Leaves 3-nerved. Corolla tube yellowish with purple lobes, the throat pinkish or yellow with red spots. Corolla is 1.5-2 cm long. Calyx 7-10 mm long with sharp teeth.

Cusick's Monkeyflower, Cusick's Monkey-flower, Cusick's Monkey Flower: Diplacus cusickii (Synonyms: Eunanus cusickii, Mimulus cusickii) - Annual from 2-30 cm high. Corolla from 20-30 cm long, magenta to violet with 2 yellow patches in throat. Calyx 8-12 mm long with unequal lobes. Herbage densely glandular-pubescent.

Nesom's Monkeyflower: Diplacus cusickioides (Synonym: Mimulus cusickii) -

Deschutes Monkeyflower: Diplacus deschutesensis (Synonym: Mimulus cusickii - in part) -

Jepson's Monkeyflower: Diplacus jepsonii (Synonyms: Mimulus jepsonii, Mimulus nanus var. jepsonii) -

Dwarf Monkeyflower, Dwarf Purple Monkeyflower, Dwarf Purple Monkey Flower: Diplacus nanus (Synonyms: Mimulus nanus, Mimulus nanus ssp. nanus, Mimulus nanus var. nanus)- Annual with branched stems from 1-12 cm high. Leaves on stems linear to oblanceolate from 1-3.5 cm long. Flowers purplish with yellow center and reddish spots around yellow. The calyx is 5-9 mm long, the lobes roughly equal.

Pygmy Monkeyflower: Diplacus pygmaeus (Synonym: Mimulus pygmaeus) -

Tricolored Monkeyflower: Diplacus tricolor (Synonym: Mimulus tricolor) -

Chickweed Monkeyflower, Chickweed Monkey-flower, Chickweed Monkey Flower, Wingstem Monkeyflower, Wing-stem Monkey-flower: Erythranthe alsinoides (Synonyms: Mimulus alsinoides) -

Field Monkeyflower: Erythranthe arvensis (Synonyms: Mimulus guttatus, Mimulus guttatus var. arvensis, Mimulus longulus) -

Shortflower Monkeyflower, Short-flowered Monkeyflower, Short-flowered Monkey Flower: Erythranthe breviflora (Synonyms: Mimulus breviflorus, Mimulus breviflorus ssp. breviflorus, Mimulus breviflorus ssp. robustus, Mimulus inflatulus) - Annual from 3-20 cm tall. Often much branched. Corolla yellow, 4-7 mm long. Calyx with short, acute teeth.

Brewer's Monkeyflower, Brewer's Monkey-flower: Erythranthe breweri (Synonyms: Mimulus breweri, Mimulus rubellus var. breweri) - Annual from 3-18 cm high, often reddish in color. Corolla light purple to red, or tube white with magenta at the base, 5-10 mm long. Corolla lobes rounded or notched at the tips. Calyx 3-7 mm long with short, acute teeth.

Cardinal Monkeyflower, Scarlet Monkeyflower, Scarlet Monkey-flower: Erythranthe cardinalis (Synonyms: Diplacus cardinalis, Mimulus cardinalis) - Introduced species east of the Cascades in Washington.

Many-flowered Monkey-flower, Purple-stem Monkey Flower, Purple-stemmed Monkeyflower: Erythranthe floribunda (Synonyms: Mimulus deltoides, Mimulus floribundus, Mimulus geniculatus, Mimulus membranaceus, Mimulus multiflorus, Mimulus pubescens, Mimulus serotinus, Mimulus subulatus, Mimulus trisulcatus) - Annual from 5-50 cm tall. Corolla yellow, often streaked with red or with red dots. Corolla is 7-15 mm long. Calyx 4-8 mm long with acute teeth.

Large Monkeyflower: Erythranthe grandis (Synonyms: Mimulus guttatusMimulus guttatus ssp. litoralis, Mimulus guttatus var. gracilis, Mimulus guttatus var. grandis) -

Common Monkeyflower, Common Monkey Flower, Seep Monkeyflower, Seep Monkey-flower, Yellow Monkey Flower: Erythranthe guttata (Synonyms: Mimulus guttatus, Mimulus guttatus ssp. guttatus, Mimulus guttatus var. guttatus, Mimulus guttatus var. lyratus, Mimulus guttatus var. puberulus, Mimulus lyratus, Mimulus langsdorffii) - Annual or perennial from 10-100 cm high. Flowers strongly 2-lipped, the corolla from 1-4 cm long. Flowers usually number more than 5 at the ends of the stems. The corolla is yellow with many hairs in the throat and red to brownish spots on the palate. Calyx up to 2 cm long, the upper the longest, the others curving inward. Plants of low to middle elevations. Similar to Mimulus tilingii.

Thinsepal Monkeyflower: Erythranthe hymenophylla (Synonym: Mimulus hymenophyllus) -

Disappearing Monkeyflower, Ephemeral Monkey Flower: Erythranthe inflatula (Synonym: Mimulus evanescens) - Annual. Leaves broadly lanceolate to ovate. Corolla yellow and less than 8 mm long.

Columbia Monkeyflower, Jungermann's Monkeyflower, Liverwort Monkeyflower: Erythranthe jungermannioides (Synonym: Mimulus jungermannioides) - Perennial with weak to prostrate stems from 5-30 cm long. Corolla yellow with red spots in throat, from 13-18 mm long, 2-lipped. Calyx 6-7 mm long with broad, short lobes with a small point at the tip. Stem leaves petiolate, the blades ovate to hear-shaped.

Broad-toothed Monkeyflower: Erythranthe latidens (Synonym: Mimulus latidens) -

Lewis' Monkey Flower, Great Purple Monkey Flower, Purple Monkey-flower: Erythranthe lewisii (Synonym: Mimulus lewisii) - Perennial from 30-90 cm high. Corolla pinkish-purple, 3-5 cm long with yellowish throat and purple spots. Calyx 2-3 cm long with narrow teeth, roughly equal in length. Plants of medium to high elevation.

Small-leaf Monkeyflower: Erythranthe microphylla (Synonyms: Mimulus guttatusMimulus guttatus var. depauperatus, Mimulus guttatus var. laxus, Mimulus guttatus var. microphyllus, Mimulus laxus, Mimulus microphyllus) -

Musk Monkeyflower, Musk-flower Monkeyflower, Musk-flowered Monkey Flower, Sticky Monkey-flower: Erythranthe moschata (Synonyms: Mimulus moschatus, Mimulus moschatus var. moschatus, Mimulus moschatus var. pallidiflorus, Mimulus moschatus var. sessilifolius) - Plants perennial with weak, sometimes prostrate stems from 5-40 cm long. Leaves ovate to elliptic ovate, 1-5 cm long. Stems and leaves covered with gland-tipped, whitish hairs. Herbage feels slimy and may smell musky. Leaves pinnately veined and stem leaves petiolate. Flowers yellow with dark lines or spots. Calyx 7-13 mm long, the upper lobe slightly longer than the others.

Large-nose Monkeyflower: Erythranthe nasuta (Synonyms: Mimulus guttatus, Mimulus guttatus var. nasutus, Mimulus nasutus, Mimulus puncticalyx, Mimulus sookensis) -

Stalk-leaved Monkeyflower: Erythranthe patula (Synonym: Mimulus patulus ssp. patulus, Mimulus patulus var. patulus, Mimulus patula) -

Primrose Monkeyflower, Primrose Monkey-flower, Primrose Monkey Flower: Erythranthe primuloides (Synonyms: Mimulus pilosellus, Mimulus primuloides, Mimulus primuloides var. minimus, Mimulus primuloides var. pilosellus, Mimulus primuloides ssp. primuloides, Mimulus primuloides var. primuloides) - Perennial. Leaves all basal and 3-veined. Leaves elliptic-oblanceolate. Yellow flowers solitary on leafless stems, each 5-20 mm long. The corolla lobes spread and are all notched. The calyx is 4-8 mm long, the lobes acute roughly equal.

Candelabrum Monkey-flower, Pulsifer's Monkeyflower, Pulsifer's Monkey-flower: Erythranthe pulsiferae (Synonym: Mimulus pulsiferae) -

Suksdorf's Monkeyflower, Miniature Monkey-flower: Erythranthe suksdorfii (Synonym: Mimulus suksdorfii) - Annual from 1-7 cm high, often branched. Herbage with glandular hairs. Leaves on the stems, linear to lanceolate, 5-16 mm long and 1-3 mm wide. Yellow corolla 4-6.5 mm long, weakly 2-lipped. Calyx 3-5 mm long, reddish, the lobes subequal.

Large Mountain Monkey Flower, Large Mountain Monkey-flower, Tiling's Monkeyflower, Tiling's Monkey-flower: Erythranthe tilingii (Synonyms: Mimulus implexus, Mimulus tilingii, Mimulus tilingii var. tilingii) - Perennial with stems from 5-30 cm tall. Herbage glabrous. Leaves 1- 3 cm long, ovate to elliptic in shape. Flowers 1-5 at the ends of the stems. Yellow corolla is 2-4 cm long with hairy palate. Calyx 1.4-2 cm long with the large upper tooth longer than the others. Plants of high elevation. Similar to Mimulus guttatus.

Washington Monkeyflower: Erythranthe washingtonensis (Synonyms: Mimulus patulus ssp. montanus, Mimulus washingtonensis var. ampliatus, Mimulus washingtonensis var. washingtonensis) - Slender annual from 4-20 cm high, simple to branched. Herbage glandular haired. Corolla yellow with red-brown spots, 1-2 cm long. Corolla is strongly 2-lipped, the lower longer and flexed downward. Calyx 4.5-8 mm long, the short teeth roughly equal.

Hairy Monkey Flower: Mimulus pilosus (now Mimetanthe pilosa) - A branched annual from 5-25 cm high. Herbage finely glandular haired. Leaves oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 1.5-4 cm long with 1-3 weak veins. Corolla yellow with 2 red-brown spots on lower lip, 6.5-9 mm long. Calyx 5-7.5 mm long, the lobes unequal. .

Paul Slichter