[The Rose Family East of the Cascade Mts. of Oregon and Washington]

The Genus Potentilla East of the Cascade Mts. of Oregon and Washington

The Cinquefoils

Brewer's cinquefoil (Potentilla glandulosa campanulata) and diverse-leaved cinquefoil (Potentilla glaucophylla var. glaucophylla) as seen at a seep in moist, rocky meadows along the South Loop Road about one mile downhill from the East Rim Viewpoint, Steens Mountain, Harney County, Oregon..............September 2, 2011.

Brewer's cinquefoil (Potentilla breweri) and diverse-leaved cinquefoil (Potentilla glaucophylla var. glaucophylla) as seen at a seep in moist, rocky meadows along the South Loop Road about one mile downhill from the East Rim Viewpoint, Steens Mountain, Harney County, Oregon..............September 2, 2011.

Common Silverweed, Silverweed Cinquefoil: Argentina anserina (Synonyms: Argentina argentea, Potentilla anserina, Potentilla anserina ssp. anserina, Potentilla anserina var. anserina, Potentilla anserina var. concolor, Potentilla anserina var. sericea, Potentilla anserina var. yukonensis, Potentilla egedii ssp. yukonensis, Potentilla yukonensis) - A grayish, silky-haired perennial which is somewhat strawberry-like. Typically prostrate with wide ranging stolons which root at the nodes. The leaves are basal, 10-30 cm long, and pinnately compound. The 15-25 leaflets are obovate to oblong in shape with sharply, coarsely toothed margins. Individual leaflets range from 1-3.5 cm long. The flowers are solitary at the nodes of the stolons or on naked stems from 3-10 cm long. The petals are yellow and 8-12 mm long The stamens number 20-25.

Marsh Cinquefoil, Purple Cinquefoil, Purple Marshlocks: Comarum palustre (Synonyms: Potentilla palustris, Potentilla palustris var. parvifolia, Potentilla palustris var. villosa) - Creeping to erect, sometimes submerged perennial of marshes and wetlands. The leaves are pinnately compound with 3-7 leaflets. The flowers are reddish-purple or wine colored, and shaped like a 5 pointed star.

Yellow Rose, Shrubby Cinquefoil: Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (Synonyms: Dasiphora floribunda, Dasiphora fruticosa, Pentaphylloides floribunda, Pentaphylloides fruticosa, Potentilla floribunda, Potentilla fruticosa, Potentilla fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Potentila fruticosa var. farreri, Potentilla fruticosa var. tenuifolia) - A prostrate to erect shrub often used for landscaping. The leaves are pinnately compound with 5 narrowly elliptical leaflets from 1-2 cm long. The leaflets are covered with silky hairs. The flowers are showy and bright yellow, measuring up to 2.5 cm across.

Ashland Cinquefoil: Drymocallis ashlandica (Synonyms: Potentilla ashlandica, Potentilla glandulosa, Potentilla glandulosa ssp. ashlandica) -

John Day Drymocallis: Drymocallis campanulata (Synonyms: Potentilla campanulata, Potentilla glandulosa, Potentilla glandulosa var. campanulata) - Petals butter yellow, opening narrowly (the sepals and petals more or less erect, like a cup). Petals broadly obovate and equal to or exceeding the sepals. Pedicels densely glandular hairy. Restricted to the canyons of the John Day River and its tributaries and the eastern foothills of the Cascades east of the Mt. Hood National Forest, and perhaps along the Columbia River near Lyle, Washington.

Sharp-toothed Cinquefoil, Tall Cinquefoil, Valley Cinquefoil: Drymocallis convallaria (Synonyms:, Potentilla arguta, Potentilla arguta ssp. convallaria, Potentilla arguta var. convallaria, Potentilla convallaria) - A perennial herb with glandular hairy herbage from 30-100 cm high. The several basal leaves are compound pinnate with 7-9 leaflets, the upper leaflets obovate in shape and the lower leaflets smaller and orbicular. The margins are toothed. Individual leaves are 10-25 cm long. The inflorescence is cymose and many-flowered. It is both narrow and compact. Each flower is saucer-shaped with the 5 sepals 5-8 mm long and flared. The petals are yellow, cream, or white and obovate in shape and about the same length as the sepals.

Idaho Drymocallis, Sticky Cinquefoil: Drymocallis glabrata (Synonyms: Potentilla glandulosa, Potentilla glandulosa ssp. glabrata, Potentilla glandulosa ssp. intermedia, Potentilla glandulosa var. intermedia) - Stems moderately glandular hairy. Leafy, widely branched inflorescences with relatively long pedicels. Petals large, rounded and overlapping, usually bright yellow, occasionally light yellow. Petals usually longer than sepals. Leaves glabrate to sparsely hairy and doubly toothed along the margins.

Sticky Cinquefoil: Drymocallis glandulosa var. glandulosa (Synonyms: Drymocallis glandulosa, Potentilla glandulosa ssp. glandulosa, Potentilla glandulosa ssp. typica, Potentilla glandulosa var. glandulosa, Potentilla glandulosa var. incisa, Potentilla rhomboidea, Potentilla valida) - Petals cream-white to more or less yellow, obovate-elliptic to broadly ovate or nearly round (3.5-5 mm long and 3-4 mm wide). Sepals spreading (as do the petals), their tips obtuse to rounded. Inflorescences usually very leafy bracteate. The common form of the species away from the Pacific coast.

Montana Sticky Cinquefoil, Sticky Cinquefoil: Drymocallis glandulosa var. reflexa (Synonyms: Potentilla glandulosa ssp. reflexa, Potentilla glandulosa var. reflexa, Potentilla reflexa) - Petals yellow and reflexed (as are the sepals). Petals narrowly ovate or obovate 3-4 mm long and 1.5 3 mm wide, generally shorter than the sepals. Sepals with obtuse tips, or occasionally acute. Inflorescences leafy bracteat, but the leafy bracts are much less prominent than those of var. glandulosa.

Austin's Drymocallis, Austin's Woodbeauty: Drymocallis lactea var. austiniae (Synonym: Potentilla glandulosa var. austiniae) - Inflorescences wide with branch angles 20-40 degrees. Petals relatively large and overlapping, pale to bright yellow. Petals usuallly longer than sepals. Stems and pedicels sometimes moderately glandular hairy. Inflorescence not leafy bracteate. Leaflets singly toothed with 4-10 teeth usually found per side.

Nevada Cinquefoil: Drymocallis lactea var. lactea (Synonyms: Potentilla glandulosa ssp. nevadensis, Potentilla glandulosa var. nevadensis, Potentilla pumila) - Inflorescences narrow with branch angles 10-20 degrees. Petals relatively large and overlapping, creamy white to pale yellowish. Petals usuallly longer than sepals. Stems and pedicels either not or sparsely glandular hairy.Inflorescence not leafy bracteate. Leaflets singly toothed with 4-10 teeth usually found per side.

Cliff Drymocallis, Rocky Mountain Sticky Cinquefoil, Sticky Cinquefoil: Drymocallis pseudorupestris var. saxicola (Synonyms: Potentilla glandulosa, Potentilla glandulosa ssp. pseudorupestris, Potentilla glandulosa var. pseudorupestris) -

Silvery Cinquefoil, Silver Cinquefoil: Potentilla argentea var. argentea (Synonym: Fragaria argentea) -

Biennial Cinquefoil: Potentilla biennis (Synonyms: Potentilla kelseyi, Potentilla lateriflora, Tridophyllum bienne) - Annual or biennial herb with an erect stem from 40-80 cm high. The leaves are mainly on the stems. The leaves are mostly pinnately compound with 3 (mostly) to 5 leaflets, the leaflets 1-4 cm long and rotund-obovate to oblanceolate in shape and coarsely toothed. The cymes are open and many flowered. Individual flowers have 5 yellow petals about half as long as the sepals. The stamens number either 10 or 15.

Shortleaf Cinquefoil, Short-leaved Cinquefoil, Sparseleaf Cinquefoil: Potentilla brevifolia - A yellowish-green, glandular hairy perennial from 5-20 cm high. The stems of the basal leaves are 1-2 times longer than the blades. The blades are compound pinnate with 3-7 crowded leaflets, each from 6-10 mm long. The stem leaves are few and reduced in size. The 5 sepals are ovate and glandular, while the 5 yellow petals are obovate in shape and spreading. There are usually 20 stamens and numerous pistils.

Brewer's Cinquefoil: Potentilla breweri (Synonyms: Potentilla breweri var. breweri, Potentilla breweri var. expansa, Potentilla drummondii, Potentilla drummondii ssp. breweri, Potentilla drummondii var. breweri) - A grayish-white woolly perennial with pinnately compound leaves with 9-11 crowded leaflets. The leaf margins are deeply and unevenly cut more than one-half the distance to the midvein. The petals are longer than the sepals. Similar to P. versicolor with which it hybridizes, but with grayer, silky villous herbage and usually fewer than 12 leaflets.

Bruce's Cinquefoil: Potentilla bruceae (Synonyms: Potentilla anomalifolia, Potentilla breweri var. bruceae, Potentilla drummondii, Potentilla drummondii ssp. bruceae, Potentilla drummondii var. bruceae) -

Diverse-leaved Cinquefoil, Different-leaved Cinquefoil, Mountain Meadow Cinquefoil, Varileaf Cinquefoil: Potentilla glaucophylla var. glaucophylla (Synonyms: Potentilla diversifolia , Potentilla diversifolia var. diversifolia, Potentilla diversifolia ssp. glaucophylla, Potentilla diversifolia var. glaucophylla, Potentilla glaucophylla) - A perennial with slender, clustered stems from 10-45 cm high. Basal leaves palmately or pinnately compound with 5-7 leaflets which are oblanceolate to obovate, each from 1-3 cm long. The leaflets are toothed or lobed, and covered with shaggy hairs. The inflorescence is open. The flowers have bright yellow petals which are obovate or obcordate and from 4-6 mm long. The sepals are 4-6 mm long, and the flower has roughly 20 stamens.

Drummond's Cinquefoil: Potentilla drummondii ssp. drummondii (Synonym: Potentilla anomalofolia) - Leaves pinnately compound with 5-11 leaflets, the leaflets each sharply and deeply cut into 1-5 subunits. Height from 30-60 cm.

Fan-foil, Fan-leaf Cinquefoil, Fringe-leaf Cinqefoil, High Mountain Cinquefoil: Potentilla flabellifolia (Synonym: Potentilla gelida) - Plants of high altitude meadows. Leaves bright green with 3 wide leaflets on long petioles. Yellow petals longer than the sepals and have notches at the tip.

Sticky cinquefoil: Potentilla glandulosa - Herbage often sticky. Leaves pinnately compound with 5-9 leaflets. Petals light yellow (sometimes almost whitish) to lemon yellow, and either shorter than the sepals or longer, depending on the variety.

Combleaf Cinquefoil, Elmer's Cinquefoil: Potentilla gracilis var. elmeri (Synonym: Potentilla pectinisecta) -

Slender Cinquefoil, Graceful Cinquefoil: Potentilla gracilis var. fastigiata (Synonyms: Potentilla amadorensis, Potentilla angustata, Potentilla blaschkeana, Potentilla blaschkeana var. blaschkeana, Potentilla blasckeana, Potentilla blasckeana var. permollis, Potentilla etomentosa, Potentilla etomentosa var. hallii, Potentilla fastigiata, Potentilla glomerata, Potentila gracilis ssp. nuttallii, Potentilla gracilis var. blasckeana, Potentilla gracilis var. brunnescens, Potentilla gracilis var. glabrata, Potentilla gracilis var. nuttallii, Potentilla gracilis var. permollis, Potentilla gracilis var. rigida, Potentilla hallii, Potentilla hassei, Potentilla indiges, Potentilla jucunda, Potentilla nuttallii, Potentilla permollis, Potentilla rectiformis, Potentilla viridescens) -

Fan-shaped Cinquefoil, Fan-leaved Cinquefoil, Idaho Cinquefoil: Potentilla gracilis var. flabelliformis (Synonym: Potentilla flabelliformis) -

Five-finger Cinquefoil, Graceful Cinquefoil, Slender Cinquefoil: Potentilla gracilis var. gracilis (Synonyms: Potentilla longipeduncluata, Potentilla macropetala) -

Five-leaved Cinquefoil, Owyhee Cinquefoil, Snow Cinquefoil: Potentilla gracilis var. owyheensis (Synonyms: Potentilla nivea var. pentaphylla, Potentilla quinquefolia) -

Graceful Cinquefoil, Slender Cinquefoil, Five-finger Cinquefoil: Potentilla gracilis - Perennial herb from 30-60 cm high. Herbage varied, from green and nearly smooth to densely white haired. Leaves usually palmately compound (occasionally pinnately compound) with 5-7 leaflets which are 3-6 cm long. Leaflet margins are deeply toothed to incised deeply towards the midrib. Basal leaves have long petioles while the stem leaves are short stemmed. Flowers in cymes with 5 yellow petals which are roughly round to heart-shaped (notch in tip). Petals longer than the lanceolate sepals.

Alpine Cinquefoil, Jepson's Cinquefoil: Potentilla jepsonii (Synonyms: Potentilla pensylvanica, Potentilla pensylvanica var. pensylvanica, Potentilla pensylvanica var. strigosa) - Perennial of high, rocky and exposed alpine ridges. Basal leaves pinnately compound with white-woolly herbage below. Each of the 5-9 leaflets is also pinnately lobed. The stem leaves are few and reduced in size upwards on the stems. The inflorescence is a few-flowered cyme. The calyx is grayish hairedand more or less glandular. Individual sepals are triangular-lanceolate in shape and up to 5 mm long. The yellowish petals are slightlylonger than the sepals. The stamens number 20.

Cutleaf Cinquefoil, Many-leaved Cinquefoil: Potentilla millefolia (Synonyms: Potentilla klamathensis, Potentilla millefolia var. klamathensis) -

Newberry's Cinquefoil: Potentilla newberryi - A short-lived perennial of arid, vernal areas. The numerous stems are prostrate or ascending and leafy throughout and range from 5-30 cm long. A few basal leaves are present. They are 2-4 cm long and pinnately compound with 7-15 crowded leaflets. The flowers are fragrant and are often hidden by the leaves. The 5 sepals are lanceolate, spreading, and 4-5 mm long. The petals are spreading and cream or white in color, and 5-6 mm long. There are about 20 stamens and numerous pistils.

Norwegian Cinquefoil, Rough Cinquefoil: Potentilla norvegica (Synonyms: Potentilla monspeliensis, Potentilla norvegica ssp. monspeliensis) - Perennial herb from 20-60 cm high with leaves mainly found on the stem. Leaves usually ternate (3 leaflets) with each 2-3 cm long and each obovate to narrower in shape. Leaflets coarsely toothed. Flowers in cymes. Petals often shorter than the sepals.

Sheep Cinquefoil: Potentilla ovina var. ovina -

Beautiful Cinquefoil: Potentilla pulcherrima (Synonyms: Potentilla camporum, Potentilla gracilis var. pulcherrima) - ?

Erect Cinquefoil, Sulphur Cinquefoil: Potentilla recta (Synonyms: Hypargyrium rectum, Potentilla recta var. obscura, Potentilla recta var. pilosa, Potentilla recta var. sulphurea, Potentilla sulphurea) -

Brook Cinquefoil, Stream-bank Cinquefoil: Potentilla rivalis (Synonyms: Potentilla leucocarpa, Potentilla millegrana, Potentilla millegrana var. millegrana, Potentilla pentandra, Potentilla rivalis var. millegrana, Potentilla rivalis var. pentandra, Potentilla rivalis var. rivalis, Tridophyllum rivale) - Spreading to erect annual or biennial. Herbage is strongly pubescent with fine, spreading to appressed hairs. Stems branched and lfowering most of their length. The 5 leaflets are oval, obovate or oblong-oblanceolate, 1-4 cm long, and with coarsely toothed margins. The yellowish petals are about one-half as long as the sepals. The flowers usually have 10 stamens, but these may number as many as 15.

Bushy Cinquefoil, Paradox Cinquefoil: Potentilla supina ssp. paradoxa (Synonyms: Potentilla nicolletii, Potentilla paradoxa) -

Klamath Cinquefoil, Sheep Cinquefoil, Steen's Mountain Cinquefoil, Varying Cinquefoil: Potentilla versicolor (Synonyms: Potentilla dissecta var. decurrens, Potentilla klamathensis, Potentilla millefolia, Potentilla millefolia var. klamathensis, Potentilla nelsoniana, Potentilla ovina, Potentilla ovina var. decurrens, Potentilla ovina var. ovina, Potentilla ovina var. pinnatisecta, Potentilla wyomingensis) - A greenish to grayish-haired perennial with tufted basal leaves and stems from 2-15 cm high. The leaves are pinnately compound with 9-21 deeply divided leaflets, the leaflets divided into 3-7 linear segments. The leaflets measure 5-12 mm long. The cymes are open and 3-7 flowered. The calyx is bowl-shaped and about 1 cm wide. The 5 petals are yellow, obcordate in shape, and slightly longer than the sepals. Usually found in subalpine to alpine meadows in southeastern Oregon. Similar to P. breweri with which it hybridizes but more glabrous and with more than 12 leaflets.

Paul Slichter E-Mail