[Sophomore Biology]

[Review of Cell Structures]


[Diagram of Typical Animal Cell] ---- [Diagram of Typical Plant Cell]

Light Microscope: Device using light and lenses to magnify small objects.

Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: Inventor of modern light microscope. Discovered cells. He called them "Beasties".

Stain: Colored liquid put on cells to make tranparent parts visible.

Electron Microscope: Device using electrons and magnets to magnify small objects.

Cell: Cells are building blocks of all living things. Cells are the smallest things considered to be alive.
Intracellular Organelles Cells

1) Nucleus: Control center of cell.

2) Cilia: Short hairs on cell membrane used for movement.

3) Flagella: Long hairs on cell membrane used for movement.

4) Cell Membrane: Thin covering of all cells. Controls what enters or leaves the cell. Protects the cell from injury.

5) Cytoplasm (Protoplasm): The jelly-like liquid insides of a cell. Found between all cell organelles.

6) Nucleolus: Area of nucleus (looks like a dark dot) that makes ribosomes.

7) Nuclear Membrane: Thin covering around nucleus. Controls entry into & out of nucleus.

8) Mitochondria: Powerhouse of cell. Chemically "burns" sugar to make energy for cell to use.

9) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): Tubes for transport and manufacture of large molecules. Organizes cell interior.

a) Smooth ER : Lack ribosomes so smooth surfaced tubules.

b) Rough ER : Tubules covered with dot-like ribosomes.

10) Ribosomes: Place where cell proteins are made. Look like dots on rough ER.

11) Golgi Apparatus (Bodies): Place where molecules are finished and packaged into vacuoles.


12) Vacuoles: Bubbles or "bags" for storage of food, water, chemicals, or wastes.

13) Lysosomes: Vacuoles that hold digestive enzymes. Help get rid of wastes or to digest cell food.

14) Cell Wall: Tough outer covering of all plant cells. Made of cellulose. Not found in animal cells.

15) Chloroplasts: Site of photosynthesis (Changes light energy into sugar energy). Found in most plant cells.

16) Chromosome: Threadlike segments of DNA in nucleus. Contains all genetic info for building the cell and controlling its daily activities.

[Review of Cell Structures]

[Movement of molecules across cell membranes]

[Relationship of ER to nucleus, golgi apparatus, and cell membrane #1]

[Relationship of ER to nucleus, golgi apparatus, and cell membrane #2]