[Nucleic Acid Master Menu]

[-------------- DNA & RNA Code of Life

Homework - Read Pages 141-145

Gene: A small piece of DNA that has a code to make one protein, and thus one trait.


Blue eyed gene codes to make blue eye protein.

Black hair gene codes to make a protein that makes hair black.......

Genes and DNA canŐt move out of the nucleus, so RNA is used to carry the message out.

RNA: similar to DNA, except that the base T is replaced by base U. RNA uses the DNA code to make proteins.

A. messenger-RNA: (m-RNA) copies the DNA code of a gene to carry out of nucleus.

B. transfer-RNA: (t-RNA) type of RNA that carries one specific amino acid to the ribosome to help make proteins. A t-RNA molecule is shown at right.

Triplet: The genetic code on DNA for each amino acid is 3 nitrogen bases long (ex- AAA, CGA, etc)

Codon: The genetic code (3 bases) on m-RNA that codes for each amino acid.

Anticodon: The genetic code on t-RNA that fits to the codon of m-RNA. Notice the anticodon on the diagram at upper right. [Click here for another view of the anticodon in greater detail.]

Transcription (Seen in diagram above): Process where the DNA code of one gene is changed into m-RNA code.

The area on this DNA that is an open loop is one gene new m-RNA that is undergoing Transcription!

Translation: Process where the gene code in m-RNA is read by a ribosome & translated into amino acid code, making a protein.

For translation to work, the ribosome fits the triplet (3 letter) code of m-RNA to the triplet of t-RNA. This lines the amino acids up in the correct order.

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Sample Problem:


m-RNA Code: ____ ____ ____ ____

t-RNA Code: -____ ____ ____ ____

Amino Acids: ____ ____ ____ ____

***(Use the m-RNA code to find the Amino Acids from the table.)***

[Answer to Sample Problem]