[Sophomore Biology: Organic Molecules Menu]


CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates include all sugars, almost a (CH2O)n 1:2:1 ratio of C:H:O.

Carbohydrate Subunits: Monosaccharides (simple sugars)-------

All have formula C6H12O6. Examples: Glucose (shown above) & Fructose

Macromolecule Carbos:

A. Disaccharides (double sugars, m-m) Ex.- Table Sugar (sucrose).-

B. Polysaccharides (“many” sugars, m-m-m-) --

Types of polysaccharides:

a. Glycogen: Animal energy storage found in our liver.

b. Starch: Plant energy storage.

c. Cellulose: wood. Most abundant carbo.


Importance of Carbohydrates:

1. Glucose- key fuel of all cells.

2. Glycogen- long term energy storage for animal cells (stores the glucose molecules in a form not easily used!).

3. Plant Starch- long term energy storage for plant cells (stores the glucose molecules in a form that is not easily used!)

4. Cellulose- Sturdy structural carbo.. of cell walls. Makes wood.


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