Read: pages 44-48 in your textbook!
Molecules of life are made of long chains of carbon atoms. This is important because carbon almost always forms strong, covalent bonds with other elements. This makes carbon molecules very stable.
Organic Molecules: All compounds containing bonds between carbon atoms.
Monomers: Building blocks of larger molecules.
Polymers: Large molecules made of many monomers or building blocks.
I. Carbohydrates, II. Lipids, III. Proteins, and IV. Nucleic Acids
I. Carbohydrates: Compounds of life made of C, H & O in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Monosaccharides: Building blocks (monomers) of all carbohydrates.
Polysaccharides: Large carbos made of many monosaccharides.
Importance of Carbohydrates to life:
a) Main energy source of all cells- Glucose (C6H12O6)
b) Energy storage in plant cells- Starch
c) Energy storage in animal cells- Glycogen
d) Cell walls of plant cells.
Most lipids do not dissolve well in water.
Importance of Lipids to Life:
a) Long term energy storage.
b) Structure of cell membranes.
c) Chemical messengers: Steroids like estrogen, testosterone, cholesterol.
d) Vitamins: Vitamin D
Amino Acids: Building blocks (monomers) of all proteins.
Polypeptide: Large forms (polymers) of all proteins.
Importance of Proteins to Life:
a) Body Structure: Muscles, bone, collagen, cartilage, hair.
b) Transport: Hemoglobin- red chemical in blood to transport oxygen.
c) Fight Disease: Antibodies
d) Control Chemical Reactions: Enzymes
Nucleotides: Monomers of all nucleic acids.
Two Kinds of Nucleic Acids:
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)
RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)
Importance of Nucleic Acids to Life:
a) Store and move hereditary or genetic information within all cells.