You may need your table which converts m-RNA code to amino acid code for some of these questions!
1. DNA & RNA are both examples of what type of complex molecules?
2. What are the largest known organic molecules?
3. What are the building blocks of all nucleic acids called?
4. Name the 3 parts of a nucleotide.
5. What 2 kinds of sugars can be found in nucleic acids?
6. How dows the sugar deoxyribose differ from the sugar ribose?
7. What type of sugar is found in a molecule of RNA?
8. What type of sugar is found in a molecule of DNA?
9. What does the abbreviation RNA stand for?
10. What does the abbreviation for DNA stand for?
11. List the names of the 4 nitrogen bases that can be found in DNA.
12. What is the name of the DNA nucleotide which bonds (in lock & key fashion) with Adenine?
13. What is the name of the DNA nucleotide that bonds (in lock and key fashion) with Guanine?
14. What is the name of the DNA nucleotide that bonds (in lock and key fashion) with Cytosine?
15. What is the name of the DNA nucleotide that bonds (in lock and key fashion) with Thymine?
16. Which one of the 5 nitrogen nucleotides found in nucleic acids is not found in DNA?
17. In which part of the cell is DNA usually found?
18. In what 2 parts of the cell can RNA be found?
19. During replication, what is the new strand of DNA called that is formed continuously towards the replication fork?
20. What is the name of the string-like structures within the nucleus that contain DNA and their associated proteins?
21. Why are there so few mistakes int he DNA code after replication?
22. During replication, what is the new strand of DNA called that is formed in fragments in the direction away from the replication fork?
23. What scientific term describes the "twisted ladder" shape of DNA?
24. What are the weak bonds that form between the interlocking base pairs of DNA called?
25. What 2 molecules which are part of the nucleotides make up the sides of the DNA "ladder"?
26. What type of molecule in the nucleotide makes up the "rungs" or steps of the DNA "ladder"?
27. What is the name of the process in which one molecule of DNA is copied into two identical molecules of DNA?
28. Which enzyme untwists and unzips the helix at the beginning of replication?
29. How many different amino acids are there?
30. How many nucleotide bases make up a triplet in the genetic code of DNA?
31. What name is given to the piece of DNA that contains the code for the making of one protein or polypeptide at the ribosome?
32. What structure in the cytoplasm or ER is the site of protein synthesis?
33.Name the process where the mRNA is copied off of a gene on the DNA molecule?
34. Name the porcess where the code for making a protein is "read" off of mRNA at the ribosome, with tRNA then bringing in the amino acids in the given sequence to make a protein.
35. How many nitrogen bases make up the code or anticodon of one tRNA?
36. What is an error in the duplication of the DNA message of a gene called?
37. What is the name of the enzyme that lays down a short section of RNA primer at the beginning of replication?
38. Where must mutations occur if they are to be passed on to the offspring?
39. Mutations in mRNA and tRNA are generally very deadly. True or False?
40. Name the group of organic molecules that controls the manufacture of proteins and enzymes and thus through their production, controls activities within the cell.
41.Which of the 3 main parts of nucleotide is the actual code of DNA or RNA?
42. Why is deleting or removing one nitrogen base from the DNA base code so dangerous?
43. Why is it an advantage for DNA to have nitrogen bases that only fit one other nitrogen base?
44. Which type of nucleic acid is single stranded?
45. List the names of the 4 nitrogen bases found in RNA nucleotides.
46. Why is it an advantage to have 2 or more 3 letter codons for each amino acid?
47. What does the statement "DNA is universal" mean?
48. In what part of the cell does transcription take place?
49. In what part of the cell does translation take place?
50. Given the following DNA code: 3'-AAA-CCC-AGT-5'. List the corresponding mRNA code that would fit this DNA code.
51. The whole process in which amino acids are assembled into proteins is known by what term?
52. What are the tubules that ribosomes are attached to called?
53. List the names of the 2 purine (double ring) nitrogen bases found in nucleic acids.
54. List the names of the 3 pyrimidine (single ring) nitrogen bases found in nucleic acids.
55. Name the molecule that has a double helix shape.
56. Briefly describe how negative feedback inhibits the Lac Operon from undergoing transcription.
57. Which one nitrogen base is not found in RNA?
58. Use the mRNA to Amino Acid chart to find which amino acid the following mRNA codes for: GAC
59. Use the mRNA to Amino Acid chart to find which amino acid the following mRNA codes for: AUA
60. Use the mRNA to amino acid chart. Given the following DNA strand: 3'-AAA-CCC-AGT-5', which 3 amino acids would result from this DNA strand?
61. Use the mRNA to amino acid chart. Given the following DNA strand: 3'-ACC-GTC-TAC-5', which 3 amino acids would result from this DNA strand?
63. Given the following DNA, mRNA and tRNA codes: DNA = AGA, mRNA = UCU, and tRNA = AGA. Which 3 letter code is the codon?
63. Given the following DNA, mRNA, and tRNA codes: DNA = AGA, mRNA = UCU, and tRNA = AGA. Which 3 letter code is the anticodon?
64. Use the mRNA to amino acid chart. Given the amino acid known as Tryptophan, what is its mRNA code?
65. Briefly describe how positive feedback allows the Lac Operon to undergo transcription.
66. Use the mRNA to amino acid chart. Given the amino acid known as Lysine. What are all the possible mRNA codes for lysine?
67. Use the mRNA to amino acid chart. Given the amino acid known as Lysine. What are all the possible DNA codes for lysine?
68. What is the 3 letter triplet code on mRNA known as ?
69. What is the 3 letter triplet code found on tRNA known as?
70. What term is the building block of all nucleic acids called?
71. What is the building block or monomer form of a protein called?
72. How many different triplet codes are there for the amino acids?
73.What happens during replication?
74. What is transcription?
75. What is translation?
76. What does the symbol tRNA stand for?
77. What does the symbol mRNA stand for?
78. What does tRNA do?
79. What does mRNA do?
80. What kind of organic molecule is the genetic or hereditary material of life which gets passed from generation to generation?
81. What building block of all proteins is carried to the ribosome by tRNA?
82. What is the name of the group of nitrogen bases that consist of one ring structures?
83. What is the name of the group of nitrogen bases that consist of two ring structures?
84. Which sugar found in nucleic acids contains one more oxygen atom?
85. Which sugar that is found in nucleic acids contains one less oxygen atom?
86. How many carbon atoms are found in the sugars ribose and deoxyribose?
87. List the names of the 3 parts of all nucleotides.
88. What term means the short section of DNA that codes for the making of only one protein?
89. What is an anticodon?
90. What is a codon?
91. What does the term degeneracy mean, and why is it so important?
92. What is the significance of the antisense strand of DNA?
93. What is the significance of the sense strand of DNA?
94. Which sections of DNA or m-RNA contain nonsense code and must be removed before mRNA can be exported to the ribosomes? A) introns or B) exons.
95. Given the following piece of DNA:
The new m-RNA made from this DNA strand would be A) 3-UAC-AGG-CUC-5' or B) 5'-AUG-UCC-GAG-3'.
96. Short fragments of DNA on the lagging strand are called what special term?
97. What is the name of the enzyme that reads DNA from 3' to 5' and lays down a long string of new DNA nucleotides during replication?
98. What is the name of the enzyme that removes the RNA primer and replaces it with new DNA nucleotides near the end of replication?
99. What is the name of the enzyme that forms bonds between adjacent nucleotides during replication?
100. Name the enzyme that reads the antisense strand of DNA during transcription and thus generates mRNA.
101. What is a nucleosome?
102. In which direction is a new DNA strand replicated by DNA polymerase III during replication? A) 3'----> 5' or B) 5'---->3'
103. In which direction is a new mRNA strand created during transcription by RNA polymerase? A) 3'----> 5' or B) 5'---->3'
104. During replication or transcription, the original DNA strand is read by the enzyme in the A) 3'----> 5' direction or B) 5'---->3' direction.
105. What is a polysome?