1.1.1 Discuss the theory that living organisms are composed of cells.
1.1.2 State that a virus is a non-cellular structure consisting of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.
1.1.3 State that all cells are formed from other cells.
1.1.4 Describe 3 advantages of using light microscopes. (pg. 82)
1.1.5 Describe 2 advantages of using electron microscopes. (pg. 82)
1.1.6 Define organelle. (pg. 80, 86)
1.1.7 Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, virues, bacteria, organelles and cells, using appropriate SI units. Appreciation of relative size is required, such as molecules (1mm), X-section of membranes (10mm), etc....(pg. 81)
1.1.8 Calculate linear magnification of drawings. Drawings should show cells and cell ultrastructure with scale bars.
1.1.9 Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ration as a factor limiting cell size. (pg. 83)
1.1.10 State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life.
1.1.11 Explain that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others.
1.1.12 Define tissue, organ and organ system.
1.2.1 Draw a generalised prokaryotic cell as seen in electronmicrographs.
1.2.2 State 1 function for each of the following: cell wall, plasma membrane, mesosome, cytoplasm, ribosomes and naked DNA. ( ? ) See also pg. 593 ???- Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes
1.1.3 State that prokaryotes show a wide range of metabolic activity including fermentation, photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation.
1.3.1 Draw a digaram to show the ultrastructure of a generalized animal cell as seen in electron micrographs. (pg. 86)
1.3.2 State one function of each of these organelles: ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), lysosome, Golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, nucleus and chloroplast. (pp. 86-97)
1.3.3 Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (pg. 593 ?)
1.3.4 Describe 3 differences between plant and animal cells. (Study diagrams on pp. 86-87)
1.3.5 State the composition and function of the plant cell wall (cellulose & microfibrils). (pg.87 & ?)
1.4.1 Draw a diagram showing the fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane including the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, glycoproteins and intrinsic and extrinsic proteins. (Mention 'cell surface membrane' rather than plasma membrane to avoid confusion. Consider the outside of the cell membrane and the links with the protruding proteins.) (pp. 108-109)
1.4.2 Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes. ( ? )
1.4.3 List the functions of memberane proteins including hormone binding sites, enymes, electron carriers, channels for passive transport and pumps for active transport.
1.4.4 Define diffusion and osmosis. (pg. 114)
1.4.5 Explain passive transport across membrranes in terms of diffusion. Mention channels for facilitated diffusion.
1.4.6 Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes.
1.4.7 Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane.
1.4.8 Descritbe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and reform during endocytosis and exocytosis.
1.5.1 State that the cell-division cycle involves interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis.
1.5.2 State that interphase is an active period in the life of a cell, where many biochemical reactions, DNA transcription and DNA replication occur. (The names of the phases are not expected here. Students should appreciate that interphase is alonger period than mitosis.) (pp. 210-212)
1.5.3 Describe the events that occur in the 4 phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
1.5.4 Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei.
1.5.5 Outline the differences in mitosis and cytokinesis between animal and plant cells.
1.5.6 State that growth, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.
1.5.7 State that tumours (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that these can occur in any organ. (pp. 222-224)