Coastal Hedge Nettle, Cooley's Hedgenettle, Cooley's Hedge Nettle, Great Betony, Great Hedgenettle: Stachys cooleyae (Synonyms: Stachys ciliata, Stachys chamissonis, Stachys chamissonis var. cooleyae) - Flowers bright reddish-purple, the tube 15-25 mm long and the lower lip 8-14 mm long. Leaves all petiolate, the petioles from 1.5-4.5 cm long. Plants range from 70-150 cm high.
Coast Hedgenettle, Great Betony, Mexican Betony, Mexican Hedgenettle, Mexican Hedge-nettle: Stachys mexicana (Synonyms: Stachys ajugoides, Stachys ajugoides var. rigida, Stachys ciliata, Stachys emersonii)
Swamp Hedge Nettle, Marsh Betony, Rigid Hedgenettle: Stachys pilosa var. pilosa (Synonyms: Stachys palustris, Stachys palustris var. pilosa, Stachys palustris ssp. pilosa) - Flowers purplish with many white spots, the corolla measuring 11-16 mm long with the tube about equal to or slightly longer than the calyx. The leaves are mostly sessile. Any petioles that are present are less than 1 cm long.
Rigid Betony, Rigid Hedgenettle, Rigid Hedge-nettle, Rough Hedge-nettle: Stachys rigida var. rigida (Synonyms: Stachys ajugoides, Stachys ajugoides var. ajugoides, Stachys ajugoides var. rigida, Stachys ciliata, Stachys rigida ssp. quercetorum, Stachys rigida ssp. rigida, Stachys rigida ssp. rivularis, Stachys rigida var. quercetorum, Stachys rigida var. rigida) - Flowers purplish with many white spots, the corolla measuring 9-14 mm long with the tube greater than the calyx. The upper leaves are sessile but the lower leaves have distinct petioles at least 1 cm long.